Cults Within & Without
by Archpriest Alexey Young
For the time will come when they will not endure sound
doctrine; but after their own lusts shall they heap to themselves teachers,
having itching ears; and they shall turn away their ears from the truth, and
shall be turned unto fables. (II Tim. 4:3)
In his monumental work, The Decline and Fall of the Roman
Empire, written more than two hundred years ago, Edward Gibbon perfectly
depicted the religious polytheism of American society in the following
description of ancient Rome:
The various modes
of worship which prevailed in the Roman Empire were all considered by the people
as equally true.... Rome was incessantly filled with subjects and strangers from
every part of the world, who all introduced and enjoyed the favorite
superstitions of their native country.... Their love of the marvelous and
supernatural, their curiosity with regard to future events...were the principal
cause which favored the establishment of polytheism.
In pluralistic, ecumenically-conditioned North America, the
average citizen, does tend to think that all religions are basically good, if
not basically the same. But as Joan Johnson writes in The Cult Movement
(Franklin Watts, 1984):
The past two and
one-half decades have shown that all religions are not good. Certainly those
groups that masquerade as religions merely to get around laws or avoid taxes are
not good. Those groups that use their followers as pawns to attain wealth or
power are not good. Groups led by individuals whose motives and judgment are
specious are not good. Andreligions that, for whatever reason, condone mind
manipulation are not good.
Some years ago I was preparing a catechumen for Baptism. One
day he asked me: After Im baptized, will there be higher mysteries or
revelations for me to learn about? I was taken aback until I remembered that
he had come from a staunch Mormon background, with heavy emphasis on hidden
temple rituals and oaths of secrecy. In his simple naivet he thought that the
cultish aspects of Mormonism might be normal components of all churches. He
quite literally didnt know any better.
But we Orthodox also have a simple naivet about the cult
mentality, and it is a dangerous naivet. As virtually every priest knows, more
and more converts are coming from cult backgrounds of all kinds. If a priest is
not familiar with the broad outlines of cult psychology, he may be preparing
these catechumens doctrinally, but is overlooking the cult mentality
unconsciously lurking in the catechumens mind. And because we tend to think of
cults in dramatic terms, such as the Jonestown massacre, the Solar Temple
suicides, Waco, Texas, or Japan's apocalyptic Aum Shinrikyo cult, we dont
realize that we see only the tip of the icebergfor mind control techniques have
become ineffably refined and could even penetrate Orthodoxy itself, under
Combatting Cult Mind Control, by Steven Hassan (Park
Street Press, 198), addresses this issue. Mr. Hassan is an exMoonie who, after
several years with that cult, was de-programmed. He now serves as National
Coordinator of FOCUS, a support network for former members of cults.
After carefully distinguishing between brainwashing (the use
of force, sometimes including torture, to coerce anothers thinking) and
mind-control (the use of psychological techniques for behavior modification
without the recruits awareness that this is going on), the author identifies
four main types of cultson the basis of their use of mind-control tactics:*
1. Religious cults are the most common and familiar. They may
be Christian-oriented (e.g., Mormons, Jehovahs Witnesses, or smaller, less
well-known groups) or based on Eastern religions (such as the Hare Krishna
movement, Rajneesh, etc.). They may be of an esoteric, illuminist orientation
(e.g., Rosicrucians, the former Holy Order of MANS) or a bizarre combination
(such as the Moonies). A great body of reliable literature is available on
all of these groupsHassans book contains an extensive and authoritative
bibliographyand our clergy should familiarize themselves with this material.
2. Political cults: these include both left- and right-wing
fringe elementsamong the best known are the various neo-Nazi organizations and
3. Psychotherapy cults emphasize personal enlightenment
through allegedly therapeutic techniques and may also contain aspects of both
religious and political cults (e.g., Scientology, EST).
Sexual immorality and perversion may or may not be present in
any of these first three categories, depending on the particular cult and its
4. Commercial cults: these groups are less well-known but
rapidly growing in our society. Appealing to greed, they recruit teenagers and
young adults through newspaper ads. Usually their victims have to pay stiff fees
for training, and end up selling merchandise door-to-door in another city,
returning most of their income to the company.
According to Hassan, the four main components of mind control
are control of behavior, thoughts, emotions and information. Control of
behavior has to do with environmentwhat a person wears, where he lives, and
often includes sleep restriction and inadequate diet.
Thought control involves manipulation of thought processes so
that cult members view reality in terms of us versus them. They are
conditioned to immediately reject any criticism of the group or its leaders.
Emotional control makes use of guilt and fear as ways of
keeping cult-followers under control. One particularly powerful aspect of fear
is the skillful manipulation of followers phobias (troubling and negative
thoughts and anxieties based upon poor self-image). Members are conditioned to
define happiness in terms of unquestioning obedience to the leaders, who must be
appeased at all cost, yet who never seem to be quite satisfied with ones
performance. Specific behavior modification techniques are extensively used.
Information control denies members the vital information they
need to make rational judgments and decisions. Any information critical of the
cult and its leaders will be kept from the followers. Often, control over their
lives and minds is so extensive that members may not even know there is outside
criticism or concern about their cult. But as Joan Johnson writes:
Learning to think
critically is one of the most important skills an individual develops. How else
can a person make wise decisions? In a world of the sincere and insincere, of
the believable and the absurd, individuals must make difficult decisions.
Survival depends on the ability to think critically. That skill can be lost or
its growth stunted if it is not constantly used. Imagine how differently history
would have been written had Jim Joness followers asked, Why? ... But they
didnt. They were victims of unquestioning obedience. They did not think
critically. And now they are dead.
Although not every cult necessarily uses all of the above
techniques, Mr. Hassan says that Each form of control has great power and
influence on the human mind. Together, they form a totalistic web, which can
manipulate even the strongest-minded people. The more sophisticated the cult,
the more subtle will be its use of these techniques, whether alone or in lethal
combination. Each method or control is discussed in considerably more detail in
Additionally, an elitist mentality is carefully nourished.
Cultists often feel that they are in some special way chosen for a great
destiny, a unique task in history. Later we will see the special form this could
take even in Orthodoxy. In Hassans words, [Cultists] consider themselves
better, more knowledgeable and more powerful than anyone else in the world.
What kind of psycho-social profile does a typical cult recruit
have? According to Peter Rowleys New God's in America (David McKay Co., 1971),
A very large number, if not the majority, of the young joining these beliefs
have had less than satisfactory experiences with their parents. Middle-aged
parents, influenced by materialism and memories of the Depression, either
ignored their children or held them in rigid psychological chains. Many new
beliefs and particularly the communes are new families replacing those that
never existed. The [leaders] . . . are clearly father-figures, substituting for
those Dads who gave their time to the corporation rather than to their sons or
Orthodox parents must also realize that there are tens of
thousands of ex-cult members in our society todayand by God's Providence some
of them find their way to Orthodoxy. Hassan says that they leave a group in
three basic ways: they walk out [many, once they see that something is very
wrong, literally run away], they get kicked out (often in a very burned-out
condition, both psychologically and physically), or they get counseled out.
Although they are fortunate to leave the destructive cult, the adjustments to
life in the real world can be extremely difficult. If they dont get good
information and counseling after they leave, the cult-induced phobias they carry
with them will make them into walking time bombs. Also, many cult members have
lived for so long without any kind of normal work or social life that the
process of readjustment to adult life is an uphill climb.
This process of readjustment may fall to the pastoral
counselling of the priest during the time of preparation for Baptism. His
expertiseor lack thereofmay be critical to the future spiritual survival of
the ex-cult member, now a catechumen.
But watch thou in all things, endure afflictions,
do the work of an evangelist, make full the
proof of thy ministry (II Tim. 4:5).
Orthodoxy has seen cults before: indeed it has had a long
history of experience and wisdom in that regard. Even a Jim Jones and his
Jonestown is nothing new: a few fanatics among some 17th-century priestless Old
Believers urged their followers to commit self-immolation in order to escape
what they believed were the forces of Antichristand many of them did. But aside
from doctrine, the primary difference between the old Khlysty or Skoptsy sects
in Russia and modern cults, is the much more sophisticated use of mind control.
We rarely speak of it, perhaps do not even suspect it, and are
certainly uncomfortable with the idea, but cultism has had its impact within
Orthodoxy even today. Some of us know about those places, situations, and
leaders (sometimes abbots or archimandrites, occasionally even married
priests) who have exerted an unhealthy and puzzling influence over their
followersbut we didnt necessarily associate this with cultism.
Those of us adhering to the old ways of our fathers in the
Faith value obedience and humility, a careful preservation of monastic
principles, and we look constantly to our elders (especially in the monastic
ranks) for guidance and example. But these are all practical ideals that, in the
hands of the inexperienced, the mentally ill, the amoral, or the power-hungry,
can be abused.
There are many books in English which deal with traditional
monastic or lay spiritual struggle (in Greece, Russia, and elsewhere). The best
are lives of saints and biographies of great Church leaders, both men and women.
There are also excellent manuals about spiritual struggle (such as Unseen
Warfare and The Arena). Such books can provide a standard by which the neophyte
can measure what he is experiencing in a given church situation.
However, a note of caution: although one reads much in those
books about startzi (elders) and obedience to them, it must be made clear that
in this country, at least, there are NO true elders today whose voice can be the
voice of heaven for a disciple or spiritual child. To think otherwise is very
dangerous: whole groups have been led into schism or heresy because they
believed their leader to be an unerring elder.
In addition to the outline of mind-control techniques given in
the first part of this article (which may apply totally or in part to cult
manifestations when they occur within a Church context), there are certain
questions that should be asked about individual leaders and their followers. If
the answer to any one of these questions suggests that something is not quite
right, the follower (whether he be in a monastery for men or women, a parish,
or in a lay association) should immediately leave, for obedience has meaning and
value only if it is freely given, not if it is extorted by means of fear, guilt,
or emotional blackmail. This cannot be understated.
1. What is the history of the group or jurisdiction? As a
priest, I have often been surprised at how little interest the prospective
convert shows in this question.
2. The leader (bishop, abbot, abbess, priest, layman, etc.) of
the group: What is his background and training? Beware of cultish talk such as,
All of the other monasteries are bad; you cant trust them, but were doing it
3. Is there paranoid talk or a feeling of us versus them?
Does the leader feel persecuted and misunderstood by others in the Orthodox
world? Are outsider critics seen as the enemy? Are followers discouraged from
having contact with those that are outside the group? Are critics invariably
referred to in un-Christian or demeaning language (such as stupid, vulgar,
peasants, worldly, etc.)?
4. Have you ever been asked to do something you knew to be
illegal, immoral, or degrading? This is a tricky one, for once the cult
mind-set has been accepted by the follower, all kinds of things can be justified
in the name of obedience, a sense of superiority, etc., indicating a
psychopathic mentality on the part of the leader.
5. Are there doctrinal/historical deviations such as We dont
need bishops (or priests, etc.); all of the bishops have gone bad? Beware:
this usually indicates that the leader in question has gotten into some kind of
trouble with his bishop (if he ever had one). Are attempts made to undermine or
destroy the reputation and character of other accepted authority figures in the
Church, or at least cast doubt on their competence?
6. While there may not be external signs of great wealth in a
given group, are there attempts to persuade recruits to sign over money,
property, or credit cards to the group? (Even in a monastic situation this
should be watched very carefully. Normally, a novice would not make a financial
transferraleither to his own family or the monasteryuntil he was ready for
tonsure.) Are relatives and visitors flattered and specially honored in order
to obtain large donations from them?
7. Are guilt and fear employed to, first, get someone into the
group (If you dont become a monk I can guarantee that you will go to hell)
or, second, to discourage them from leaving (If you leave, you will be lost,
you will go back to your former immoral life-style)? Is there a lack of
congruity concerning those that have left the group? For example, you know that
a given recruit simply walked out, but the leaders invariably say that he was
kicked out for (choose one) immorality, mental instability, disobedience,
etc., rather than, simply, He wasnt suited for the monastic calling.
8. If you are a layman in a parish situation, are you expected
to get permission (a blessing) from the priest before you change jobs, buy a
new car, etc.? Under normal circumstances these are not the proper purview of a
parish priest, however wise and pious he may otherwise be. One mayand
shouldask for prayers and advice about these and other non-controversial
aspects of practical life, but asking for permission is a quite different thing.
9. Is lying or misrepresentation justified by the leader
because, he says, the group is serving a higher cause? In other words, do the
ends justify the means?
10. Are members given medical treatment (physical or
emotional, if needed) by the group, or are they sent home so that the family can
bear the expense?
11. Is there grandiosity on the part of the leaders? In
other words, do they see themselves and the group as somehow rescuing, fixing,
or saving the rest of the Church?
One may, indeed, be giving a very good witness, but this is
not something to be shoved down the throats of others or trumpeted far and
wide. In Orthodoxy, a witness is simply lived, quietly, peacefully, and in
harmony with others as best as can be. In this century, the examples of Saint
Nectarios of Aegina and the righteous Papa Nicholas Planas of Athens, not to
mention our own contemporary, Saint John of Shanghai and San Francisco, are good
examples of this.
For parents whose children may one day be tempted by this or
that guru (whether in the Church or out), Steven Hassan has wise words:
television for entertainment and information, is also a factor in predisposing
one to cult membership Unfortunately, most television viewing does not stimulate
our intellect, imagination or higher aspirations. Instead, television encourages
conformity and creates a distorted perception of reality. Where else can all
problems be resolved in a one-hour episode? In addition, while it is certainly
important to know what is happening in the world, incessant news reports on drug
problems, sex scandals, corruption and violence take their toll on the American
psyche. We become desensitized to our own values and lose the powers of
creativity and discrimination.
In the last decade or so, the cult mentality has seriously
threatened the innocent minds and souls of many Orthodox seekers. Some of them
have been grievously harmed, even though they may have left the groups that were
harming them. As parents and priests, we have a responsibility to face this
problem squarely and honestly, although it is not easy or comfortable to do so.
We must not pretend or hide our heads in the sand.
Among the tasks that face us are
1. To help parents understand the factors in family life that
might predispose our children to one day abandon their free will to unscrupulous
and unworthy leaders, whether in the Church, in politics, or elsewhere. We must
teach children what free will is, how it operates, and why it is so precious.
And we must start teaching them now.
2. We must educate our young so that they understand what true
spiritual fatherhood (or motherhood) is, what authentic monastic life consists
of, and what, by contrast, are the recognizable signs of a cult.
3. By our example and words, we should try to rescue as many
souls as we can who are presently involved in cult activity and who, no longer
able to exercise their own free will, may never find the strength of will to
walk out on their own.
4. Counsel and nurture those who have already left a cult but
may be silently suffering not just emotional scars but still-open wounds from
Wherefore take unto you the whole armour of God, that ye
may be able to withstand in the evil day. (Eph. 6:13)
From Orthodox America #139. This article started
a three-part exchange between St. Gregory Palamas Monastery and Vladimir