Orthodoxy and Western Christianity: For Reformed Protestants
The interpretive authority for Orthodox Christians is not our own reason applied
to the Bible alone (the Protestant doctrine of "sola
Scriptura") but what can be discerned as the consensual teaching
of the Holy Fathers, the collective voice of the Church, which is the
"pillar and ground of Truth" (1 Tim. 3:15). Thus, if one wishes
to know what the Orthodox Church teaches about any given Reformed doctrine
he should consult the Patristic commentaries for the various "proof-texts"
employed by Reformed Protestants in support of their views. For example,
predestination and free will: Romans 8:28-30, 9:11ff, 11:7; Eph. 1:5ff,
2:1-9; 2 Tim. 1:9-10; Titus 3:4-5; and 1 Thess. 5:9.
In doing so you will readily discover that the consensus clearly
supports the Orthodox position, which affirms
man's free will and that "predestination" is basically another
way of saying "God's acts according to foreknowledge" (see a short treatment of this).
The key issue will then become something more foundational: Who
do I trust? The consensus of innumerable holy men spanning from the time
of the Apostles to the present day? or The interpretations of
a few men who were unfamiliar with this consensus (e.g., Luther and Calvin)
and who were shackled by the late medieval scholastic nominalism of their
Orthodox-Reformed Bridge , a solid blog with the tagline "A Meeting Place for Evangelicals, Reformed & Orthodox Christians". A good resource for Reformed Protestants who are inquiring into Orthodoxy.
On Predestination, from the writings
of Bishop Elias Milatios. A comprehensive treatment of this doctrine.
Miles from the Truth: A Response to the
Protestant magazine Credenda/Agenda, by Deacon [now Father] John Whiteford and Patrick Barnes.
St. John of Damascus on Predestination and Free Will: see Book II, Chapters
XXV-XXX, and Book III, Chapters XIV and XVIII.
The UnReformed Truth: Orthodoxy
Exonerated in the Light of the Apostolic Faith. A Response to the
Calvinist journal Credenda/Agenda. Numerous articles critiquing
Calvinism from an Orthodox perspective.
The Myth of the "Calvinist Patriarch", by Archbishop Chrysostomos of Etna.
The Acts and Decrees of the Synod of Jerusalem, a Synod held in 1672 concerning a work entitled The Eastern Confession of the Christian Faith, which attempted to express Orthodox beliefs in Protestant terms, specifically Calvinism. It was allegedly written by the former Patriarch of Constantinople, Cyril (Loukaris). The "Confession of Dositheos" starts at the bottom of p. 110, and remains an excellent expression of Orthodox theology vis-à-vis Calvinism. Protopresbyter James Thornton offers further historical insights in this excerpt from his book The Oecumenical Synods of the Orthodox Church.
Luther Had His Chance: taken from Stephen Runciman's The Great Church in Captivity.
Lutheran inquirers into Orthodoxy: Orthodoxy for Lutherans. A wealth of resources provided by Christopher Orr. It is the companion site to the Lutherans Looking East list on Yahoo! Groups, which is a forum for asking questions of Orthodox converts from Lutheranism.
John Cassian on Grace and Free Will: his famous Conference XIII.
St. John was a contemporary of St. Augustine in Gaul. Though living in
the West he was in heart and mind a Father of the East. He was the first
to respectfully object to certain of his contemporary's theological imprecisions
concerning grace and free will. Conference XIII is a superb statement
of the Orthodox doctrine of synergy (wrongly dubbed "semi-Pelagianism"
by modern Western writers): God working with man to effect his salvation.
One should also read two "books" in St. John's treatise Against
the Nestorians which deal with the heresy of Pelagianism: Book
I and Book
St. Gregory Palamas and the Tradition of the Fathers, by Fr. George Florovsky.
This article demonstrates that the Holy Fathers have always taught that
God's Will does not proceed from His Uncreated Essence but from His Uncreated
Energies. They also condemn the Western notion of "created grace."
This teaching has important ramifications for Reformed doctrines on free
Documents of the Sixth
cumenical Synod (680-81 A.D.): This Synod is inseparable from the
two prior Synods, especially the Fourth, as it clarifies them and interprets
them. This Synod "condemned the heresy of the Monothelites, who argued
that although Christ has two natures, yet since He is a single person,
He has only one will. The Council replied that if He has two natures,
then He must also have two wills. The Monothelites, it was felt, impaired
the fullness of Christ's humanity, since human nature without a human
will would be incomplete, a mere abstraction. Since Christ is true man
as well as true God, He must have a human as well as a divine will."
(Ware, ibid., p. 29) As Fr. George Florovsky demonstrates in
his article "The Ascetic Ideal in the New
Testament" (above), Reformed soteriology is Monoenergistic. Although
Reformed Protestants affirm Chalcedonian Christology, they reason inconsistently,
failing to formulate orthodox soteriology which is derived properly only
from the dogma of the Person of Christ.
Free Will and Death, an excerpt from The Mystery of Death, by
Nikolaos P. Vassiliadis.
The Teaching on Predestination and the Veneration of the Saints,
from the ROCOR Cathedral of St. John the Baptist in Washington, DC.
Dialogue on Free Will and Determinism, by Father John Whiteford
A Reply to Jonathan Edwards' Treatise on the Will, by Father John Whiteford
"Justification and Sanctification: A Conversation Between Lutheranism and Orthodoxy", by
Ross [now Father Basil] Aden (St. Vladimir's Theological Quarterly,
v.38, #1). I have asked Father Basil if I may post this article to my
site. His answer is pending. In the meantime, I decided to put the
bibliographic data here as this article has benefited many.
Cabasilas, St. Nicholas, Life in Christ. Crestwood,
NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press. A former Reformed Protestant
commented on a forum: "In my 10 year struggle with all of this, I
found Nicholas Cabasilas to be the best bridge between Reformed thought
and Orthodoxy. He wrote in the 14th century so I don't know how he did
Mastrantonis, Fr. George, Augsburg and Constantinople. Brookline,
MA: Holy Cross Press, 1982. This is the translation of the extensive dialogue
between Patriarch Jeremiah II and the Lutheran theologians from Tubingen
in the sixteenth century. Read excerpts.
It details clearly the differences between Lutheranism and Orthodoxy.
Meyendorff, John, and Robert Tobias, Salvation in Christ: A Lutheran-Orthodox
Dialogue. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress Press, 1992. Many topics
under the umbrella of "salvation" are treated in this compilation
of ecumenical studies. A most useful comparison of the differences between
Orthodox dogma and those that emerged from the Reformation. If unavailable
through sources listed below order directly from the publisher: (800)
Pelikan, Jaroslav, The Christian Tradition, Volumes 1 and 2.
Arguably the best history of dogma series ever produced. Dr. Pelikan converted
to Orthodoxy from Lutheranism in 1998.
Robertson, J. N. W. B. trans., The Acts and Decrees of the Synod of
Jerusalem, Sometimes Called the Council of Bethlehem. London:
Thomas Baker, 1899. Contains the translation from the Greek of the Synod's
decrees against Calvinism (specifically against the "Confession of
Cyril Lucar") and includes the Confession of Dositheus. This was
reprinted in 1969 by AMS Press in New York. It details clearly the differences
between Calvinism and Orthodoxy.
Rose, Fr. Seraphim, The Place of Blessed Augustine in the Orthodox
Church. Platina, CA: St. Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, 1996 .
This is one of the most important books listed here. It is a must read.
Read some excerpts. Also, I
have included here some other excerpts that I posted to an Internet forum
in response to a question about what the Orthodox Church teaches concerning
This youthful error of Augustine (i.e., the denial of prevenient grace) is
indeed Pelagian, and is the result of an over-logicalness in the defense
of free will, making it something autonomous rather than something that
cooperates with God's grace; but he incorrectly ascribes it
to St. Cassian (who was also wrongly accused in the West of teaching
that God's grace is given in accordance with human merit), and Augustine
himself then fell into the opposite exaggeration of ascribing everything
in the awakening of faith to Divine grace. The true teaching of St.
Cassian [see Conferences,
XIII], on the other hand, which is the teaching of the Orthodox
Church, was something of a mystification to the Latin mind. (p. 38)
.... [Speaking of St. Faustus of Lérins, Fr. Seraphim writes:] "Like
St. Cassian, he saw grace and freedom as parallel, grace always cooperating
with the human will for man's salvation." (p. 56; cf. Phil. 2:12-13)....
About St. Faustus, Gennadius writes (ch. 86): "He published an
excellent work, 'On the Grace of God through Which We Are Saved,' in
which he teaches that the grace of God always invites, precedes and
helps our will, and whatever gain freedom of will may attain for its
pious effect is not its own desert, but the gift of grace." And
later, after comments on his other books: "This excellent teacher
is enthusiastically believed in and admired." Clearly, Gennadius
defends St. Faustus as an Orthodox Father, and in particular defends
him against the charge (often made against St. Cassian as well) that
he denies "prevenient grace." The followers of Augustine could
not understand that the Orthodox doctrine of synergy does not at all
deny "prevenient grace," but only teaches its cooperation
with free will. Gennadius (and St. Faustus himself) made a special point
of stating this belief in "prevenient grace." (p. 58)